# Quantum Algorithms for Solving Dynamic Programming Problems

**By Pooya Ronagh**

We present a general quantum algorithm for solving finite-horizon dynamic programming problems. Up to polylogarithmic factors, our algorithm provides a quadratic quantum advantage in terms of the number of states of a given dynamic programming problem. This speedup comes at the expense of the appearance of other polynomial factors representative of the number of actions of the dynamic programming problem, the maximum value of the instantaneous reward, and the time horizon of the problem. Our algorithm can be applied to combinatorial optimization problems solved classically using dynamic programming techniques. As one application, we show that the travelling salesperson problem can be solved in $O^*(\lceil c \rceil^4 \sqrt{2^n})$ on a quantum computer, where $n$ is the number of vertices of the underlying graph and $⌈c⌉$ is its maximum edge-weight. As another example, we show that the minimum set-cover problem can be solved in $O(\sqrt{2^n} \operatorname{poly}(m, n))$, where $m$ is the number of sets used to cover a universe of size $n$. Finally, we prove lower bounds for the query complexity of quantum algorithms and classical randomized algorithms for solving dynamic programming problems, and show that no greater-than-quadratic speedup in either the number of states or number of actions can be achieved for solving dynamic programming problems using quantum algorithms.

#### Most Recent Papers

## Neural Error Mitigation of Near-Term Quantum Simulations

By Elizabeth R. Bennewitz, Florian Hopfmueller, Bohdan Kulchytskyy, Juan Carrasquilla, & Pooya Ronagh

One of the promising applications of early quantum computers is the simulation of quantum systems. Variational methods for near-term quantum computers, such as the variational quantum eigensolver (VQE), are a promising approach to finding ground states of quantum systems relevant in physics, chemistry, and materials science…

## Benchmark Study of Quantum Algorithms for Combinatorial Optimization: Unitary versus Dissipative

By Krishanu Sankar, Artur Scherer, Satoshi Kako, Sam Reifenstein, Navid Ghadermarzy, Willem B. Krayenhoff, Yoshitaka Inui, Edwin Ng, Tatsuhiro Onodera, Pooya Ronagh, & Yoshihisa Yamamoto

We study the performance scaling of three quantum algorithms for combinatorial optimization: measurement-feedback coherent Ising machines (MFB-CIM), discrete adiabatic quantum computation (DAQC), and the Dürr-Hoyer algorithm for quantum minimum finding (DH-QMF) that is based on Grover’s search. We use MaxCut problems as our reference for comparison, and time-to-solution (TTS) as a practical measure of performance for these optimization algorithms…

## Scaling Up Electronic Structure Calculations on Quantum Computers: The Frozen Natural Orbital Based Method of Increments

By Prakash Verma, Lee Huntington, Marc Coons, Yukio Kawashima, Takeshi Yamazaki, & Arman Zaribafiyan

The method of increments and frozen natural orbital (MI-FNO) framework is introduced to help expedite the application of noisy, intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) devices for quantum chemistry simulations. The MI-FNO framework provides a systematic reduction of the occupied and virtual orbital spaces for quantum chemistry simulations. The correlation energies of the resulting increments from the MI-FNO reduction can then be solved by various algorithms, including quantum algorithms such as the phase estimation algorithm and the variational quantum eigensolver (VQE)…

## Variationally Scheduled Quantum Simulation

By Shunji Matsuura, Samantha Buck, Valentin Senicourt, & Arman Zaribafiyan

Eigenstate preparation is ubiquitous in quantum computing, and a standard approach for generating the lowest-energy states of a given system is by employing adiabatic state preparation (ASP). In the present work, we investigate a variational method for determining the optimal scheduling procedure within the context of ASP. In the absence of quantum error correction, running a quantum device for any meaningful amount of time causes a system to become susceptible to the loss of relevant information…

## Efficient and Accurate Electronic Structure Simulation Demonstrated on a Trapped-Ion Quantum Computer

By Yukio Kawashima, Marc P. Coons, Yunseong Nam, Erika Lloyd, Shunji Matsuura, Alejandro J. Garza, Sonika Johri, Lee Huntington, Valentin Senicourt, Andrii O. Maksymov, Jason H. V. Nguyen, Jungsang Kim, Nima Alidoust, Arman Zaribafiyan, & Takeshi Yamazaki

Quantum computers have the potential to perform accurate and efficient electronic structure calculations, enabling the simulation of properties of materials. However, today’s noisy, intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) devices have a limited number of qubits and gate operations due to the presence of errors. Here, we propose a systematically improvable end-to-end pipeline to alleviate these limitations…